Décryptage et Revalorisation de L'Art de L’Écu, de La Chevalerie et du Haut Langage Poétique en Héraldique. Courtoisie, Discipline, Raffinement de La Conscience, état de Vigilance et Intention d'Unicité en La Fraternité d'un Nouveau Monde !

mercredi 15 novembre 2017

Héraldique du Royaume-Uni : armoiries d'écoles

Après Oxford et Cambridge, voici les armes de quelques grandes écoles du Royaume-Uni, dont la réputation est parfois fort ancienne, illustrées par des chromolithographies de la Belle Époque. Les textes, en langue anglaise (à l'intention de nos amis héraldistes d'Outre-Manche), indiquent l'origine de chaque école, sa particularité et son importance en terme d'effectifs (chiffres de l'époque).

Abingdon School (1563), Bath College (1892), Blundell's School (1604) Bradfield College (1850), Bromsgrove School (1553), Chaterhouse (1611), Cheltenham College (1841), Christ's Hospital (1552), Denstone College (1873), Derby School (1160), Eastbourne College (1867), Edinburgh College (1824), Royal Naval School (1840) & Eton College (1440).

Felsted School (1564), Fettes College (Edinburgh 1870), Haileybury College (1862), Harrow School (1571), Highgate School (1562), King Edward's School (Birmingham 1552), King's School (Chester 1541), Liverpool College (1842), Marlborough College (1843), Malvern College (1864), Merchant Taylors' School (London 1561), Mill Hill School (1807), Nottingham High School (1513) & Oundle School (1556).

Portsmouth Grammar School (1732), Repton School (1557), Rossall School (1844), Rugby School (1567), Sedbergh School (1525), Sherborne School (1550), Shrewsbury School (1551), St. Paul's School (1509), Stonyhurst College (1592), Tonbridge School (1553), Wakefield Grammar School (1591), Wellington College (1853) & Winchester (1382).

Abingdon School 1563

Founded in 1563 by John Roysse, Mercer, of London. The School was re-built in 1870, and re-organised in 1878. Boys number about 100. There are Classical and Modern Sides, and a Prepatory Form. The School has Scholarships at Pembroke College, Oxford. Motto : I will sing the mercies of the Lord for ever. (Psalm 89)
Bath College 1892  

Bath College, on Bathwick Hill, a mile from the heart of the city, was established to provide first-grade education in accordance with the principies of the Church of England. Number of boys about 115. There are Classical and Modern Sides, and Junior and Prepatory Schools. The city arms are used. Motto : They can because they think they can.

Blundell's School, Tiverton 1604

« Founded and endowed in the year 1604 by Master Peter Blundell, of the same place, clothier. » So wrote Blackmore in Lorna Doone. The school-house associated with John Ridd is no longer used, new buildings having been erected a mile out of the town in 1882. There are Classical and Modern Sides. The boys number about 240. Motto : For fatherland and people.

Bradfield College 1850  

Founded by Rev. Thomas Stevens, a former rector of Bradfield, in 1850 for the education of boys as « loving children of the Church of England ». Incorporated by Royal Charter in 1862. Number of boys about 330. The Foundation Scholars, of whom there one to every ten Commoners up to 160, must be either fatherless or the sons of poor clergymen or gentlemen. Motto, (from 119th Psalm) : Blessed art Thou, O Lord, teach me Thy statutes.
Bromsgrove School 1553  

Founded by King Edward VI. In 1553 ; re-founded and endowed by Sir Thos, Cookes, Bart., in 1693. There are about 130 boys in the School, nearly all boarders, Classical and Modern Sides, and a special Army Class. Several Scholarships and Exhibitions at Worcester College, Oxford, are open to boys educated at Bromsgrove. 

Chaterhouse 1611 

Founded by « good old Thomas Sutton », merchantn in 1611, as a « hospital » fr 40 boys and 80 men. The « poor brethren » still occupy the Cathusian Monastery at Smitthfield, but the school was transferred in 1872 to Godalming. Old Carthusians : - Steele, Addison, Judge Blackstone, J. Wesley, Leech, Gen, Havelock, Bishop Thirlwall, Thackeray, Lord Alverstone, General Baden-Powell, & C. Motto : God being the Giver, I have given.

Cheltenham College 1841  

Founded 1841 ; incorporated by Act of Parliament, 1894. The handsome Tudor's Buildings date from 1843. Scholars number about 600. There are Classical, Military and Civil, and Junior Departments. Lord james of Hereford, John Morley, E. H. Lecky, Briton Rivière, and other famous men educated here. Motto : Labour conquers everything.
Christ's Hospital 1552  

Founded by Edward VI. In 1552, on the side of an old monastery of the Grey Friars, near Newgate, the « Blue Coat School » was in 1902 removed to new buildings at West Horsham. Number of boys about 800, divided into Latin (Classical Side), Mathematical (Modern Side), and Prepatory Schools. S. T. Coleridge, Charles Lamb, Leight Hunt, and many present members of City Corporation, were Bluecoat boys. 
Denstone College 1873 

This is the senior school in the Midland division of the important Woodard foundation. The site was given by Sir Percival Heywood, an the ground plan takes the shape of the letter H in acknowledgment. Opened 1873 ; chapel dedicaded 1887. Number of boys about 230. Motto : The wood of the Crossis the tree of knowledge.
Derby School 1160  

One of the oldest school in England, dating probably from the Saxon period, though Walter Durdant, Bishop of Lichfield, in gererally regarded as founder (1160). When the monasteries were dissolved the school property was vested by Queen Mary in the town of Derby. School re-constituted 1879. Number of boys 150. The deer in first and fourth quarters is from the town arms. Motto : The life of man without learning is death.
Eastbourne College 1867  

Founded in 1867 in order to provide a first-grade public school education at moderate cost. Number of boys averages 180. Thera are Classical and Modern Schools, and special Army and Medical Classes. The College stands in the own grounds of about eight acres. Motto : Salvation out of the East.
Edinburgh College 1824  

Founded 1824. Incorporated by Royal Charter 1825. Sir Walter Scott, an original director, made the inaugural speech. The Academy comprises a Prepatory School for boys under ten, and an Upper School. Number of scholars averages 400, of whom all but about 50 are day boys. The School Prefects, know as « Ephors » are elected by the senior classes.
Royal Naval School, Eltham 1840  

Incorporated by Act of Parliament in 1840, to provide a public school training for the sons of officers in the Royal Navy and Marines. The school has since 1851 been open to all sons of gentlemen. Removed to Eltham from New Cross in 1889. Boys are prepared for a variety of professional careers, as well as for the Navy and Army. Motto : May is last for ever. The arms are appropriately nautical. 
Eton College 1440  

Founded by Henry VI. In 1440, this is now the most famous of the public schools of England. Over 1 000 scholars, including 70 King's Scholars, or « Collegers. » Boys not on the Foundation are « Oppidans. » The great school event is the famous 4th June celebration. Distinguished Etonians : Pitt, C. J. Fox, Shelley, Duke of Wellington, W. E. Gladstone, late Lord Salisbury, Lord Rosebery, A. J. Balfour, Lord Roberts, General Buller, and many others. 

Felsted School 1564

Founded in 1564 by Richard, Lord Riche, and reconstituted in 1852. The leading school of Essex. Many additions to buildings have been made in recent years. Number of boys about 250, including those in the Junior House, opened in 1895. Motto : Preserve thy faith.

Fettes College, Edinburgh 1870

Founded and endowed by Sir William Fettes, Bart.,a wealthy merchant and contractor, who was twice Lord Provost of Edinburgh. Opened 1870, Administered under sheme of Educational Endowments Commission dated 1886. Boys number about 230. Classical and Modern Sides. Numerous Scholarships and Exhibitions. Fitty Foundationers are received free of charge. The College is one of the finest buildings in the city, costing 150.000 £ .
Haileybury College 1862

Founded 1862 ; incorporated by Royal Charter 1864. The school buildings were erected in 1809 by the East India Company for training cadets. Boys number about 470. The School is divided into Upper, Middle and Lower Schools, and also into Classical and Modern Sides. Canon Lyttelton, now of Elton, was until recently master. Motto : Lift up your hearts
Harrow School 1571

Founded 1571 by John Lyon, yeoman of Preston, a hamlet in Harrow parish. Number of boys about 600. The Upper School wear dress tail-coats, the Lower School Eton jackets. There are Classical and Modern Sides. Byron, Sheridan, Rodney, Hood, Sir R. Peel, Palmerston, Cardinal Manning, late Earl Shaftesbury, Earl Spencer, Lord Rayleigh, Winston Churchill, and many other distinguished men educated here. Motto : May the fortune of the hous endure.
Highgate School 1562

Founded by Sir Roger Cholmeley in 1562, and confirmed by Letters Patent of Queen Elizabeth in 1565. Remodelled in 1876. School buildings recently rebuilt in French Gothic style. Number of boys about 310, many being day boys. There are Classical, Modern and Lowers Departments, and a Junior School for very young boys. The motto ist a play upon the name, and may be rendered : Vow (or aim at) higher things.
King Edward's School, 
Birmingham, 1552

Founded 1552, re-organised 1878. The Foundation, which has an income of nearly £ 50.000, comprises nine schools : a High School for boys, a High School for girls, three Grammar (or Middle) Schools for boys, and four Grammar (or Middle) Schools for girls. Total number of scholars about 2.700 (in Boys High School 450). Archbishop Benson, Bishops Lightfoot and Westcott and the late Sir E. Burne-Jones educated here.
King's School, Chester, 1541

Founded 1541 by Henry VIII., in connection with Chester Cathedral. Re-organised in 1873. Upwards of 100 scholars, mostly day boys. There are 12 King's Scholarships and several Scholarships tenable at the Universities. The Royal arms of the period are used. Motto : The King gave : let God be praised.
Liverpool College 1842

Founded in 1842. Thera are three schools. The Middle and Lower Schools are conducted in the original building in Shaw Street ; the Upper School occupies a handsome block close to Sefton Park, opened in 1890. There are about 270 boys, of whom rather more than a third are in the Junior Department. Motto : Not alone by ability, but also by character.
Marlborough College 1843

Founded 1843 ; incorporated by Royal Charter 1845 ; additional charter granted 1853. Number of boys about 600. There are 70 Foundation Scholarships for sons of clergymen, and many other scholarships and Exhibitions are awarded annually. The College is divided into Upper and Modern Schools. Motto : By courage, studiousness and recreation.
Malvern College 1864

Founded 1864, and opened in 1865. The College is conducted on the same principies as Winchester. There are Classical, Modern, and Army Sides, and much attention is given to mechanical engineering. There are nearly 500 boys. Admission by nomination of shareholders. Fifty entrance Scholarships. Motto : He is wise who foresees.
Merchant Taylors' School, 
London 1561

Founded 1561 by the Merchant Taylors' Company, and entirely controlied by them. Removed by Sutfolk Lane to site vacated by the Charterhouse School on its transference to Godalming in 1872. Mainly a day school (accommodation for 500 boys). Edmund Spenser an Lord Clive were pupils. The arms are those of the Company. Motto: Man plants, man waters, but God gives the increase.
Mill Hill School 1807

Established for the education of Nonconformists in 1807, when the Universities were not open to them. Re-constituted by Court of Chancery in 1869. Boys number about 245. There are Upper, Middle and Lower Schools, the two former subdivided into Classical and Modern Sides.Many Scholarships and Exhibitions, notably for sons of ministers. Motto : Both character and mind
Nottingham High School 1513

Founded 1513 by Dame Agnes Mellers, widow of Richard Mellers, bell founder, sometime Mayor of Nottingham. Charters granted by Henry VIII., Philip and Mary, and Elizabeth. Edward VI. Gave the building site. School buildings now in use opened 1868. There are about 350 scholars, mostly day boys. Numerous scholarships. Motto : Praise the End.
Oundle School

Founded and maintained by the Grocers' Company, for the purpose of supplying a liberal and useful education on Church of England principles, and giving prominence to modern subjects. There are Classical, Modern, Science, and Engineering Sides. Number of boys about 230. New schools built 1883, and many additions made since.

Portsmouth Grammar School 1732

Founded in 1732 by a resident of Portsmouth, Dr. Wm. Smith, and remodelled in 1874. The school buildings, dating from 1879, occupy the site of the old fortifications. There are about 230 boys in the school, mostly day boys. Special attention is given to the Army and Navy forms. Motto : "Honours are the rewards of virtue".

Repton School 1557 

Founded 1557 under the will of Sir John Port, of Etwall. Re-organised 1874. About 300 boys. There are Classical and Modern Sides, and a special Army Class for sandhurst and Woolwich. Amongst former pupils may be mentioned Justice Denman, Bishop Claughton, Prof. Sanday, & c. Motto : "The poet is exempt from blame". 
Rossall School 1844 

Founded in 1844 for the education of the sons of clergy and others. Incorporated by Royal Charter 1890. The school is situated close the Blackpool and Fleetwood, in one of the most bracing parts of England. The main building, formerly the residence of Sir P. H. Fleetwood, contains a beautiful chapel. About 350 boys. There is also a Prepatory School. Motto : "Mind controls the cosmos". 
Rugby School 1567

Founded 1567 by Lawrence Sheriff. School immortalised in Tom Brown's Schooldays. Numeber of boys 570. Famous headmesters include Dr. Arnold, and two who afterwards became Archbishops of Canterbury, Drs. Tait and Temple ; while another future Archbishop, Dr. Benson, was an assistant master. Famous Rugbeians : Sir R. Abercromby, Matthew Arnold, Tom Hughes, Viscont Goschen, Mr. Austen Chamberlain, & c. Motto : "By praying and working". 

Sedbergh School 1525

Founded in 1525 by Dr. Roger Lupton, a former Provost of Eton College. The endowment was appropriated by Henry VIII., but restored by Edward VI., who re-founded the School in 1552. Hartley Coleridge was a master here. The School was remodelled in 1874. There are about 240 boys, many of whom are boarders. Several Exhibitions at Oxford and Cambridge are open to boys.

Sherborne School 1550

This, the first of the Grammar Schools founded by Edward VI. (1550), un-doubtedly existed as a monastic school centuries before the date. The present school buildings include parts of the old Benedictine Monastery. Twelve hundredth anniversary of foundation of bishopric, & C., celebrated in 1905. School re-constituted 1870. About 200 scholars. The arms and motto of Edward VI. Are used. 

Shrewsbury School 1551

Founded by Edward VI. (whose arms are used) in 1551 ; augmented by Queen Elizabeth 1571 ; re-organised 1868 ; removed to new buildings 1882. About 270 scholars, including many day boys. School rolls include names of Sir Philip Sidney, Judge Jeffreys (afterwards at St. Paul's and Westminster), Charles Darwin, Archbishop Thomson, and Stanley Weyman, the novelist. Motto : "Be not anxious if thy soul be upright."

St. Paul's School 1509

Founded 1509 by Dean Colet. Removed in 1884 from behind St. Paul's Cathedral to Hammerschmith. Mainly a day scholl. There are about 600 boys, of whom 153 are Foundation Scholars. Distinguished Paulines : Milton, Marlborough, Pepys, Major André, T. Clarkson, R. H. Barham (« Ingoldsby »), Jowett of Balliol, & c. Motto : "By faith and learning."

Stonyhurst College 1592 

Important Roman Catholic College, directed by Jesuit Fathers. Foundedat St. Omer's, Flanders, 1592, the penal law then forbidding Catholic education in England. Transferred to Stonyhurst, near Blackburn, 1794. Centenary celebrated July, 1894. About 270 scholars. Library contains over 40.000 books. Observatory is famous. Motto : "As much a I can" (Old French).
Tonbridge School 1553 

Founded 1553 by Sir Andrew Judde, a former Lord Mayor of London, and chartered by Edward VI. Re-organised 1880. Governed by the Worshipful Company of Skinners. The school buildings are entirely modern. Boys number about 400. There are Classical and Modern Sides, and special classes for Engineering, Medicine, the Army, & c. Mottoes : "God gives the increase and Brethren in Christ".
Wakefield Grammar School 1591 

Founded by Royal Charter of Queen Elizabeth in 1591, probably in continuation of a much earlier school. Handsomely endowed by members of the Saville family. Tercentenary celebrated in 1891. Number of boys 180. Classical and Modern Sides. Many entrance Scholarships, and a number of leaving Exibitions at Oxford and Cambridge. Motto: "To lack knowledge is shameful.
Wellington College 1853 

Founded by public subscription as a memorial of the great Duke of Wellington, and incorporated by Royal Charter in 1853. Only the sons of deceased Army officers are eligible for the Foundation, but others officers'sons are admitted at reduced fees. There are about 470 boys, of whom 90 are Foundationers. A former headmaster was Archbishop Benson.
Westminster School 1560 

Established as a grammar school in connection with the Collegiate Church of St. Peter (Westminster Abey), the school was re-founded by Queen Elizabeth in 1560. There are 60 Foundationers, or King's Scholars, and about 200 Oppidans, or Town Boys. Scholarships and Exibitions at Christ Church, Oxford, and Trinity College, Cambridge. Distinguished old boys : Dryden, Ben Jonson, Sir C. Wren, Warren Hastings, Cowper, C. Wesley, J. A. Froude, G. A. Henty, & c. 
Winchester 1382 

Founded by William of Wykeham in 1382. First stone laid 1387 ; school opened 1393. Five hundredth anniversary celebrated July 25th, 1893. The school has from the first been closely connected with New College, Oxford. Bishop Ken, and many other bishops of preceding and present generations, educated here ; also many influential newspaper owners and editors. Dr. Arnold, of Rugby, was a Wykehamist. Arms are those of Wm. Of Wykeham (also used by New College).

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